Turmeric Extract

Introduction 1,2,3,4

Turmeric, also known as Curcuma longa, is a vibrant orange-yellow spice, that has been employed by traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine to promote health.  Many healthful phytonutrients are found in turmeric, but most investigators believe curcumin is primarily responsible for turmeric’s health promoting properties.  Curcumin is concentrated in the underground stem of Curcuma longa and is the substance responsible for the spice’s vivid color. Curcumin is a type of polyphenol. Polyphenol’s describe a broad and large class of plant nutrients that provide many benefits when consumed through diet or supplementation. Curcumin, together with other curcumin like substances are referred to curcuminoids and make up roughly 5% of turmeric.  Curcuminoids are poorly absorbed and some estimates suggest only 1% of curcuminoids are absorbed after consumption. Therefore, supplementation with higher doses may provide sufficient blood levels for therapeutic benefit. 

 

*Potential Benefits of Rosemary for Joint, Bone, Tendon, and Muscle Health  5,6,7

 Curcumin is a potent antioxidant 8,9,10,11,12

Oxidative damage is a key mechanism that causes pre-mature aging of joint and muscle tissue. Curcumin can neutralize high energy, free radicals that contain oxygen and/or nitrogen, reducing the damage these molecules can cause to joint and muscle tissue. Curcumin may also enhance the activity of many antioxidant enzymes that your body naturally produces like superoxide dismutase. Moreover, curcumin boosts the sulfur containing enzymes and substances in your body that help detoxify dangerous toxins.

 Curcumin is an ant-inflammatory 13, 14,15,16

Chronic low grade inflammation is a driving force behind chronic joint and muscle injury. Curcumin inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa beta, the protein that is primarily responsible for promoting activation of DNA that stimulates inflammation.

Curcumin also hampers tumor necrosis factor alpha, the main signaling molecule that helps catalyze the inflammation pathway. Finally, curcumin reduces the production of local signaling molecules and enzymes that magnify the inflammatory process and aggravate pain, stiffness, and weakness.

Curcumin exhibits anti-fat properties 17,18,19

Obesity is a significant risk factor for chronic joint disease. Research implies curcumin suppresses the maturing of fat cells and some research even suggest curcumin triggers fat cell death. Also, curcumin has been shown to reduce body weight and cut of the blood supply to fat cells making fat cell survival much harder.

Safety First 20

Turmeric and its active ingredient curcumin are generally recognized as safe when consumed in usual culinary and herbal doses. As with any consideration of any form of supplementation consult your healthcare provide prior to use if you are pregnant, nursing, taking any medications or have any medical conditions. Discontinue use and consult your doctor is any adverse reactions occur.

 Research

  1. Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB: Curcumin as ‘‘Cur- ecumin’’: From kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;75: 787–809.
  2. He Y, Yue Y, Zheng X, Zhang K, Chen S, Du Z: Curcumin, inflammation, and chronic diseases: How are they linked? Mo- lecules 2015;20:9183–9213.
  3. Yang, K.-Y.; Lin, L.-C.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Tsai, T.-H. Oral bioavailability of curcumin in rat and the herbal analysis from Curcuma longa by LC-MS/MS. J. Chromatogr. B Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2007, 853, 183–189.
  4. Shoba, G.; Joy, D.; Joseph, T.; Majeed, M.; Rajendran, R.; Srinivas, P.S. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998, 64, 353–356.
  5. Daily, James W., Mini Yang, and Sunmin Park. “Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.” Journal of Medicinal Food 19.8 (2016): 717–729. PMC. Web. 14 Sept. 2017.
  6. Chandran, B.; Goel, A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother. Res. 2012, 26, 1719–1725.
  7. Kloesch, B.; Becker, T.; Dietersdorfer, E.; Kiener, H.; Steiner, G. Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of the polyphenol curcumin on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2013, 15, 400–405. Joe, B.; Lokesh, B.R. Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of
    reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1994, 1224, 255–263.
  8. Reddy, A.C.; Lokesh, B.R. Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in
    the rat liver. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1994, 32, 279–283.
  9. Jeong, G.S.; Oh, G.S.; Pae, H.-O.; Jeong, S.-O.; Kim, Y.-C.; Shin, M.-K.; Seo, B.Y.; Han, S.Y.; Lee, H.S.;
    Jeong, J.-G.; et al. Comparative effects of curcuminoids on endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression: Ortho-methoxy groups are essential to enhance heme oxygenase activity and protection. Exp. Mol. Med. 2006, 38, 393–400.
  10. Joe, B.; Vijaykumar, M.; Lokesh, B.R. Biological properties of curcumin-cellular and molecular mechanisms
    of action. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2004, 44, 97–111.
  11. Kocaadam, B.; Sanlier, N. Curcumin, an Active Component of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), and Its Effects on Health. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2015.
  12. Singh, S.; Aggarwal, B.B. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane). J. Biol. Chem. 1995, 270, 24995–25000.
  13. Anthwal, A.; Thakur, B.K.; Rawat, M.S.M.; Rawat, D.S.; Tyagi, A.K.; Aggarwal, B.B. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of C-5 curcumin analogues with potential to inhibit TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. BioMed Res. Int. 2014.
  14. Gupta, S.C.; Tyagi, A.K.; Deshmukh-Taskar, P.; Hinojosa, M.; Prasad, S.; Aggarwal, B.B. Downregulation of tumor necrosis factor and other proinflammatory biomarkers by polyphenols. Arch Biochem. Biophys. 2014, 559, 91–99.
  15. Cretu, E.; Trifan, A.; Vasincu, A.; Miron, A. Plant-derived anticancer agents - curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment. Rev. Medico-Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi 2012, 116, 1223–1229.
  16. Cho, J.W.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, C.W. Curcumin attenuates the expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha as well as cyclin E in TNF-alpha-treated HaCaT cells; NF-kappaB and MAPKs as potential upstream targets. Int. J. Mol. Med. 2007, 19, 469–474.
  17. Ejaz, A.; Wu, D.; Kwan, P.; Meydani, M. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice. J. Nutr. 2009, 139, 919–925. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Shao, W.; Yu, Z.; Chiang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chai, T.; Foltz, W.; Lu, H.; Fantus, I.G.; Jin, T. Curcumin prevents high fat diet induced insulin resistance and obesity via attenuating lipogenesis in liver and inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e28784. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Weisberg, S.P.; Leibel, R.; Tortoriello, D.V. Dietary curcumin significantly improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in mouse models of diabesity. Endocrinology 2008, 149, 3549–3558. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Sharma, R.A.; Euden, S.A.; Platton, S.L.; Cooke, D.N.; Shafayat, A.; Hewitt, H.R.; Marczylo, T.H.; Morgan, B.; Hemingway, D.; Plummer, S.M.; et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: Biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin. Cancer Res. 2004, 10, 6847–6854.